Lingua-Nova







TOEIC prep and Test


Course book:

  • Longman "Preparation Series for the New TOEIC Test (advanced course, fourth edition)"
                ISBN 978-0-13-199310-5
                09/1985 [ZEFS Mediathek(Library)]


Previously we looked at verbs, conditionals, adjectives/adverbs and now we will look at pronouns and how they differ from most languages in the world. Also I have placed in DropBox a listening exercise for your practice. Other exercises are to be found in MOODLE.
  • Homework
    • A Closer Look: Dropbox of Listening Exercises [expired] TO COMPLETE AT HOME
    • A Closer Look: Pronouns
      • Cases and other forms
           
        Pronouns
        Cases Other Forms
        Nom Dat Acc Gen Poss Refl
        I me me mine my myself
        you you you yours your yourself
        he
        she
        it
        (they)
        him
        her
        it
        (them)
        him
        her
        it
        (them)
        his
        hers
        its
        (theirs)
        his
        her
        its
        (their)
        himself
        herself
        itself
        (themself)
        we us us ours our ourselves
        you you you yours your yourselves
        they them them theirs their theirselves
        themselves
        who whom whom whose whose --

        • Genitive case
          • Genitive Case is used with "of" when showing possession.
            • Three dogs are running in the park. The brown and white dog belongs to the Hardys'.
            • The brown and white dog is one of theirs.
          • Accusative Case is used with "of" when showing inclusion in a group.
            • Three dogs are running in the park. The brown and white dog is in the middle of the pack.
            • The brown and white dog is one of them.
        • Singular / Plural pairs
          • that / those
          • this / these
          • which / which
          • what / what
        • Here / There pairs
          • this / that
          • these / those
      • NO grammatical gender —
        • Three RULES:
          • they have to make babies
          • people are ALWAYS he or she
          • you have to care
            • your cat has gender for you, not for me [for me it's a cat]
            • trees don't have grammatical gender
            • you care when differentiating between two ITs or use one as a noun not a pronoun
        • He is he (i.e. Junge ist ein "er".)
        • She is she (i.e. Mädchen ist eine "sie", nicht ein "es".)
          Mädchen an seinem Geburtstag
        • Also feminine are:
          • Ships
          • Ideals
            • Lady Liberty in New York Harbor
            • Justice on top of court houses
            • Cities, States
              • NOT its physical aspects (streets, roads, buildings, hills, seasides &c.)
              • rather the collective of her parts and their interactions
        • It is it (i.e. Tür ist ein "es", nicht eine "sie".)
        • You care, but 'dunno'!
          • he/she
          • s/he
          • they
            Singularly They
    • A Closer Look: Pronouns Exercise
    • A Closer Look: Pronouns Exercise Answers

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